When you work on multiple projects and run these locally through, for example, Apache this means you have to maintain and tweak your local server environment all the time. Additionally, when you work on that same project with multiple people, chances are your co-workers have a slightly different setup. These slight changes in set-up can be harmless, but more times than not, cause for developer headache or unwanted code-alterations to make it work.
Undoubtedly you have heard of Docker and maybe you even played around with it. If you haven’t, Docker describes itself as:
Docker containers wrap up a piece of software in a complete filesystem that contains everything it needs to run: code, runtime, system tools, system libraries – anything you can install on a server. This guarantees that it will always run the same, regardless of the environment it is running in.
Basically, Docker allows you to split up your application in different blocks called
containers which run the same regardless of where you run them. Every container has a job and does that job by itself. Think NPM for devops.
This means that every developer can run the project in exactly the same way without having to worry about their local setup and settings. Awesome.
Running isolated containers is awesome, but sometimes you need containers to talk to each other. For instance, you have a container for your MySQL database, and one for your PHP application. The latter will want to read and write to the database running in a different container. This is where Docker Compose comes in:
Compose is a tool for defining and running multi-container Docker applications
Basically it allows you to orchestrate your containers in a way containers can depend on each other and the ability of them to talk to each other.
Let’s build something
So enough introductionary information, let’s put this to practice! As an example we’ll get a Laravel application up through Docker-Compose.
What will we be needing to make this work?
- A webserver to serve our application
- PHP >= 5.6.5
- Various PHP modules, such as:
- OpenSSL PHP Extension
- PDO PHP Extension
- Mbstring PHP Extension
- Tokenizer PHP Extension
- XML PHP Extension
- A database
Let’s start with number one, a basic webserver. In order to create containers through Docker Compose we need to create a new file in our root directory called
Inside this file let’s first add the necessary boilerplate:
version: '2' # We will use the latest docker-compose variant services: # Here we will define our containers
Now we’re ready to add our first container. Let’s add a container called
webserver to our services:
version: '2' services: webserver: image: 'bitnami/apache:latest' ports: - '80:80'
Now, if you run
docker-compose up from the command line it will pull in the
bitnami/apache image and spin up our webserver container. We use
bitnami/apache as this is a well maintained open source image which gives us sane defaults out of the box. We can also create our own images and use them inside docker-compose but I’ll write about that later.
With the container running, you can navigate to
http://localhost and you should see your typical
It works! message. Awesome, so we have a webserver running without having to run or configure anything locally besides docker.
Mapping our filesystem
Next up we should make sure our new webserver knows where to serve our files from. Let’s create a directory
htdocs and add a file
index.php in there to display the PHP information:
<?php echo phpinfo(); ?>
Now we have to tell our container about our files. Docker Compose has an option
volumes to map a local folder or file to one in the container. Let’s use that to tell our webserver container about the
version: '2' services: webserver: image: 'bitnami/apache:latest' ports: - '80:80' volumes: - ./htdocs:/app # Map htdocs folder to app
In the above statement we’ve mapped our local
htdocs folder to the folder
app in the container. Since we use Bitnami/Apache we know the container uses
/app as the apache root folder, so by mapping our htdocs to this, our htdocs folder becomes the root.
Stop the docker-compose (
ctrl-c on mac or unix) process and rerun
docker-compose up. When everything is up again you can now visit
http://localhost/index.php and we will see our page!
But wait, it’s just showing us the PHP as text without being interpreted.
Time to set up PHP support
Add PHP to the containers
Now, we have two options here. We can either add an apache configuration file with PHP instructions and add this to our image to override the server settings the same we as we used volumes to map the htdocs folder, or we can say goodbye to our image and create our own Docker image. For the purpose of this walkthrough I think the latter is more beneficial, but just be aware you could do this with the forementioned route as well.
Right, so when we add an
image inside our
docker-compose.yml we’re refering to pre-fabbed Docker Containers. We can make these ourselves as well, and in essence, that’s all an image is, a set of instructions how the container should behave.
Let’s create a new file called
Dockerfile and put it in the root directory alongside `docker-compose.yml’
FROM ubuntu:latest RUN locale-gen en_US.UTF-8 \ && export LANG=en_US.UTF-8 \ && apt-get update \ && apt-get -y install apache2 ENV APACHE_RUN_USER www-data ENV APACHE_RUN_GROUP www-data ENV APACHE_LOG_DIR /var/log/apache2 ENV APACHE_PID_FILE /var/run/apache2.pid ENV APACHE_RUN_DIR /var/run/apache2 ENV APACHE_LOCK_DIR /var/lock/apache2 RUN ln -sf /dev/stdout /var/log/apache2/access.log && \ ln -sf /dev/stderr /var/log/apache2/error.log RUN mkdir -p $APACHE_RUN_DIR $APACHE_LOCK_DIR $APACHE_LOG_DIR VOLUME [ "/var/www/html" ] WORKDIR /var/www/html EXPOSE 80 ENTRYPOINT [ "/usr/sbin/apache2" ] CMD ["-D", "FOREGROUND"]
In the above we first pull in the latest Ubuntu image. Next, we
RUN a few commands. First we update the system so it can locate packages, next we install
apache2. After that we set some Environmental variables for apache. Then we tell the Docker container about the volumes we want to use, expose port 80 and eventually we run apache2 so it can serve files.
Now we need to alter
docker-compose.yml so it knows to use our own
version: '2' services: webserver: build: . ports: - '80:80' volumes: - ./htdocs:/var/www/html
Notice we changed the volume to map to
/var/www/html as that’s the default location for our container.
Pfew! Let’s see where we are at. In the terminal run
docker-compose build followed by
docker-compose up to spin things up. We need to run
build because we’re not using an image anymore but our own Dockerfile which needs to be built first. Whenever you make a change it’s a good habbit to first run
docker-compose down && docker-compose build to ensure your changes are propogated.
If all went well we should be able to open the browser at
http://localhost. But wait, we still don’t see PHP being parsed, it’s still showing text.
Fear not, with the above rework to use a Dockerfile it’s easy to add PHP support by updating the
Add PHP Support through Dockerfile
Open up the
Dockerfile and add a second
RUN command to install the other packages we want and enable some modules (yes, the list might be a tad excessive, but hey ..):
RUN apt-get -y install libapache2-mod-php7.0 php7.0 php7.0-cli php-xdebug php7.0-mbstring sqlite3 php7.0-mysql php-imagick php-memcached php-pear curl imagemagick php7.0-dev php7.0-phpdbg php7.0-gd npm nodejs-legacy php7.0-json php7.0-curl php7.0-sqlite3 php7.0-intl apache2 vim git-core wget libsasl2-dev libssl-dev libsslcommon2-dev libcurl4-openssl-dev autoconf g++ make openssl libssl-dev libcurl4-openssl-dev pkg-config libsasl2-dev libpcre3-dev \ && a2enmod headers \ && a2enmod rewrite
So, let’s see what effect this has, run from the command line:
$ docker-compose down $ docker-compose build $ docker-compose up
The build step might take a while, so make sure to get some coffee while that runs, but don’t worry, build are incremental and cached, so you won’t have to wait for ages every time you want to get your environment up and running.
Once it’s all finished, visit
Huzar! We get the PHP information page.
Add a database container
We want to run Laravel, which work with a database, so let’s get that set up.
docker-compose.yml and add another service container:
... services: ... db: image: mysql:5.7 volumes: - "./.data/db:/var/lib/mysql" restart: always environment: MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: root MYSQL_DATABASE: laravel_ddb MYSQL_USER: laravel MYSQL_PASSWORD: laravel ports: - "3306:3306" ...
This container will use another image. This time we won’t want to alter the container so the default
mysql:5.7 image will do. One thing to note is I added a
volumes instruction. This will create a folder
.data in our project folder which maps to the database container data folder. This makes sure we can persist data, even if we destroy the container and it allows us to commit the database to version control. Now, it’s up to you if you want to version control a local db or to .gitignore it, but having persisitent database data is a big win. Of course, you can just safely remove the
volumes instruction and everything will be fine.
Right, that was easy .. just adding an extra container for extra functionality. And it is.
As part of good practice though, we should add a
depends_on instruction to the
webserver container, to make it explicit we want to use the db container,
... services webserver: ... depends_on: - db ...
Now let’s actually get our application up and running.
I won’t go over how to install Laravel, as the nice folks at the Laravel Documention do a good job doing that.
Just make sure you end up with the laravel project files and the Docker files in the same directory
Before, we just wanted the
htdocs to be mapped, but with laravel we want our whole directory to be mapped to the container, so let’s change the
volumes instruction. Additionally, Laravel wants the
public directory to be the webroot. In order to do that we need to add an apache configuration file to our container.
version: '2' services: webserver: build: . ports: - '80:80' volumes: - ./:/var/www/html - ./apache.conf:/etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf depends_on: - db db: image: mysql:5.7 volumes: - "./.data/db:/var/lib/mysql" restart: always environment: MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: root MYSQL_DATABASE: laravel_ddb MYSQL_USER: laravel MYSQL_PASSWORD: laravel ports: - "3306:3306"
Notice we can add multiple volumes mappings. The second one maps the apache.conf file we will create in a second to the default website at the container (that way we can just re-use what’s already there and don’t have to create more server instructions).
apache.conf will look like this:
<VirtualHost *:80> DocumentRoot /var/www/html/public <Directory /var/www/html/public> Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews AllowOverride All Order allow,deny allow from all </Directory> </VirtualHost>
And that’s it! Now we can run our
docker-compose commands again:
$ docker-compose down $ docker-compose build $ docker-compose up
And this time when we visit
http://localhost we should see our fresh Laravel install!
One thing to note is that these containers have their own spaces and thus IP adresses. In order for Laravel to connect to the database container it needs to know where it is. Luckily, we can just use the container name we used in the
docker-compose file. So instead of connection to
127.0.0.1 we will connect to host
db. This works, because our mysql container exposes the 3306 port and the webserver container
depends on the mysql container.
Summing it up
We now have a
docker-compose file that instructs Docker to spin up 2 containers, one for our webserver (apache + php) and one for the database. Anyone who pull in the project and runs
docker-compose up will have the exact same work environment since these files will be under version control.
If in the future a developer decides we need another module, package or server setting, he can just modify the Dockerfile or docker-compose settings, commit it, and it will be propagated to all other developers.
If you have any questions feel free to reach me at @hyra or in the comments below.
Questions or comments?
As always, if you have any questions or comments, you can find me on Twitter.